High performing students give opinions based on reading material and class content, use the expression “I think”, ask questions in class, are on time, ask for feedback regarding assignments, take notes in class and while studying, look for the professor after class, seat at the front of the classroom and attend every class, study in silence and alone at regular times along the whole semester, read the material about two weeks before the exam, review notes before the exam, talk about the content with other students. On the other hand, low performing students remind quite the whole semester, miss at least three classes per semester, are normally late, sit at the back of the classroom, don’t take notes in class and never look for the professor after class-hours. It seems that specific training programs at the start and during the semester as well as training on cultural intelligence were identified are necessary.

Reading is an attempt to absorb the thought of the author and know what the author is conveying (Leedy 1956). Studying is the interpretation of reading materials. Study habits and skills are particularly important for college students, whose needs include time management, note taking, Internet skill, the elimination of distractions, and assigning a high priority to study. Marcus Credé and Nathan R. Kuncel (2008) in their research at the University of Albany said that Study habit, skill, and attitude inventories and constructs were found to rival standardized tests and previous grades as predictors of academic performance, yielding substantial incremental validity in predicting academic performance.

When considering the relationship between study time and performance, it is not only how much time a student spends studying but also how effectively this time is spent that influences academic performance. first-generation students have unique personal and educational experiences playing roles in their academic performance in college, and they do not typically have the same sources of support as second-generation students do throughout their education. Students high in metacognitive and self-regulatory abilities are thought to be characterized by active involvement in their own learning process, continuous planning, and carefully monitoring of the task that they are required to complete, their own study behaviors, and the match between task and study behavior (Zimmerman, 1986). In addition, self-regulated learners seek assistance from peers and teachers, possess high self-efficacy and effective time management skills, and are goal-directed and self-motivated.

Effective studying requires not only that the student possess knowledge of appropriate studying techniques and practices (study skills), but also sustained and deliberate effort (study motivation), self-regulation, ability to concentrate, self-monitoring (study habits), and a sense of responsibility for and value in one’s own study habit. schools may fail in delivering high-standards of young professionals because their programs may not be suitable for a community of students from diverse countries. Freshman will always encounter problems to perform in foreign environments because their study habits may not suffice the new requirements, education systems, and class dynamics.


Study habits seem to be an important determinant of academic performance. However not bounded by country of origin, it seems that some cultural aspects may affect determine habits and hence negatively or positively affect academic performance. It becomes apparent that there exist study habits of universal value that could be taught, monitor, and tested along the study process. In order to ensure that all students, from any country, perform well when enrolling in international programs, an examination of their current study habits is important and a useful tool to develop programs that suit multicultural classrooms.


Article by: Busayo Tomoh

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